# 104 3 4 Percentiles & Quartiles in Python

The number of observations in the upper half also is 5. As such Q3 will be the value at 3rd position in the upper half of the data. We will use the small start-up example having 10 employees as discussed in our earlier blog on Range. The monthly salary of the employees is given in the table below. Find the quartiles and interquartile range of the salary.

The interquartile data is generally called IQR. Therefore, IQR measures the middle $$50\%$$ of the data. The second quartile in IQR gives the median of the data. 8.Boxplots show the second and third quartiles of this data for each ” n “, red bars correspond to the medians, and blue stars indicate means. 5.The values that separate parts are called the first, second, and third quartiles; and they are denoted by Q1, Q2, and Q3, respectively.

## Example 2 : Use appropriate statistics to compare data sets

Boxplot is also known as Box and Whisker Plot. Mathematician John Tukey first introduced the “Box and Whisker Plot” in 1969 as a visual diagram of the “Five Number Summary” of any given data set. In this article, we have studied the definitions of quartiles, formulas used for the quartiles in detail. We also studied the difference between quartile and quarters. This article gives the definitions of interquartile range and its formula.

Quartiles are the values that split a list into three-quarters of numerical results. The central point of distribution is determined by the middle portion of the three quarters, and the detail near the central point is seen. The lower part of the quarters reveals half of the collection of details below the median, and the upper part shows the other half, which falls above the median. The quartiles represent the data set distribution or dispersion. A box plot has a five number summary of a set of data that includes the minimum score, first quartile , median, third quartile and maximum score.

The interquartile range formula calculates variability by splitting an ordered set of data into quartiles. 10, 13, 16, 21, 22, 26, 29, 29, 30, 32, 33, 33, 33, 35, 37 You can use a histogram to determine the shape. Also, the quartiles show how the data are disturbed differently on either side of the center. Quartiles are the values that divide the given data set into four parts, making three points. Thus, quartiles are the values that divide the given data into three quarters.

## Data distributions

The third quartile, denoted Q3, is the value in the data set that holds 25% of the values above it. The quartiles can be determined following the same approach that we used how to remove adware from windows 10 to determine the median, but we now consider each half of the data set separately. The quartile formula is used to divide a set of observations into 4 equal parts.

• The distribution is skewed to the right because many families have 0, 1, 2, or 3 children, but very few families have 10 or more children.
• The mean is more representable in the given case.
• The box plot for this distribution is shown below.
• If you have any queries regarding this article, please ping us through the comment section below and we will get back to you as soon as possible.
• In order to find the 3rd quartile, we have to find the median of the data points that are greater than the median that is 9, 9, 10.

The second Quartile or Q2 gives the median of the data set. First Quartile or Q1 gives the middle value in the first half of the data set. The point to be noted is that the lower quartile is the median of the lower half of the dataset. The whiskers go from each quartile to the minimum or maximum. A vertical line goes through the box at the median. Find the lower quartile or first quartile $$\left(Q_\right)$$.

## Understanding Quartiles, IQR, and Boxplots

Range as a measure of dispersion has many limitations as it is based on two extreme observations. It fails to explain the scatter within the range. So when these extreme observations are discarded the limited range would be more accurate and representative of the entire data. This range calculated based on the middle 50 percent of the observations is called interquartile range. Thus, interquartile range is the difference between the third quartile and the first quartile. The quartiles are the highest values in each of the first three of the four parts of the distribution.

Q.D can be used as a measure of variation for open-ended distributions. Quartile deviation (Q.D.) has many merits compared to range and other measures of variation, but it also has some limitations. Computation of Q.D is very simple as one needs to calculate the values of the upper and lower quartiles. This difference can be taken as a measure of variation. IQR has a sample consistency that is less potent than the standard deviation. Third Quartile or Q3 is the median of the values present to the right of the median calculated in step 2.

• Thus, the interquartile range occupies the second $$25\%$$ of the data and the third $$25\%$$ of the data, divided into four quarters by quartiles.
• In box and whiskers plot, outliers are shown by points below or after the minimum and maximum value limits.
• The interquartile range is the difference between the upper and lower quartiles.
• The third quartile Q3 has 75% of the data below it and topmost 25% data above it.
• The second quartile—representing 50 per cent of the distribution.

The second quartile Q2 divides the data into two equal parts and has 50% of the data below it. The third quartile Q3 has 75% of the data below it and topmost 25% data above it. The advantage of quartiles is that it takes every data point into account.

It is the measure of variability or spread of data. The whole collection is separated into four equal sections by the quartiles. Thus, the first, second, and third quartiles are represented by Q1, Q2, and Q3, respectively.

The relative measure of quartile deviation is called coefficient of quartile deviation. It can be used to compare the degree of variation in different distributions. Boxplot is a visual representation of quartiles along with the minimum and maximum value of the datapoints. It also represents outliers present in the dataset.

## How to find Interquartile Range?

For distributions that are approximately normal, use mean and standard deviation to describe the data. For skewed distributions, use median and quartiles to describe the data. Determine the center and spread of the data. The https://1investing.in/ mean, or average of a data set is the sum of the values in the data set divided by a number of values in the data set. The Standard Deviation is a measure of how much the values in a data set vary, or deviate, from the mean.

• You can use the mean and the standard deviation to describe the center and spread.
• The Interquartile Range is the smallest of all statistical measures of dispersion.
• Defined & explained in the simplest way possible.

Q2 is nothing but the median since it reflects the item’s position in the list and is, thus, a positional average. We have to organise the data in ascending order to find quartiles in a set of data. The Third Quartile divides the set of data in such a way that three-fourths, or 75%, of the values are below it and the remaining one-fourth, or 25%, are above it. The Third Quartile or Q3 can be calculated using the following formula.

## Illustrated Examples on Quartiles

Download more important topics, notes, lectures and mock test series for Humanities/Arts Exam by signing up for free. Since the data are bunched to the right and have a long tail to the left, the data are skewed left. The number of children in a family is not normally distributed. The distribution is skewed to the right because many families have 0, 1, 2, or 3 children, but very few families have 10 or more children. The scores on any test are often skewed to the left and not normally distributed, because more students will receive higher scores.

## What are Quartiles and IQR?

If you have any queries regarding this article, please ping us through the comment section below and we will get back to you as soon as possible. The third quartile is the median of the value that lies above the median value of $$10$$. When a whole pizza is cut into four parts, each part is the quarter of the pizza, and the line or boundary where pizza is cut into parts is called the quartile. You can useCuemath’s online quartile calculator to verify your answer. In order to find the 3rd quartile, we have to find the median of the data points that are greater than the median that is 9, 9, 10. In order to find the 3rd quartile, we have to deal with the data points that are greater than the median that is 9, 9, 10.